Action Potentials can be a Puzzle

I found myself digging through a closet of scrap-booking goods last night in a frantic effort to find a 1 3/8” hole punch. I had been sparked by an idea that has been percolating for years, but I’ve never implemented. I wanted to build a cell with ions, channels, and charges so my students could manipulate the “players” involved in the resting membrane potential and an action potential.

This concept is particularly challenging for students. They could use chemistry, biology, and elements of physics to understand this system, but mine are woefully under prepared. Their eyes glaze over when they have to think about electrical gradients and chemical gradients working simultaneously. Add in channel types and applications to graphs that describe membrane changes in voltage, and even I’m starting to have an anxiety attack! When I teach this concept, the energy in my classroom is so thick, I could cut it with a knife. There has to be a better way.

berfore-ap
Before…

But so far, no amount of restructuring, dividing, or attempting to present just a “snapshot” in time had worked to facilitate the connection between what is occurring with ions and how it happens. So I cut out a giant cell, a little positive and negative sign, and all the different channels, and put them in a bag. That handy scrapbook punch allowed me to make sets of 10 potassium ions and 10 sodium ions in the colors I have been trying to get my students to associate with this concept. Voila- my students will now have an intracellular space on a table that represents the extracellular space…and all the important pieces as well.

before-ap
…and after.

Back in the classroom, as I drew on the board a picture of each step of the electrical changes experienced by the cell, they had to manipulate their cell. Did it work dreamily well? Probably not. Some students got it and visibly relaxed. But some students didn’t get it…and remained in a state of panic. However, I did discover that my students were pretty mixed up by the concepts of “depolarization” and “repolarization.” Because they can’t see the cell, sometimes this creates a mental block.

After class, a subset of students followed me to my office, where we played more with the model and I’ll be darned if they didn’t get to the point where they could set up their cell appropriately for each of the phases of the action potential! I could ask questions like, “Can the cell be stimulated again at this point?” And the question I love more, “WHY!?!” Light bulbs started turning on and several students took pictures so they could make their own model at home to use while studying.

This week in lab we use the HHsim program to study action potentials and this time, my new models will be on the table with them and they are going to have to show me what happens to explain the graphical results they get. My hope is that time, coupled with this paper model, will help them master the concepts.


Nichole Warwick teaches biology at Clatsop Community College and is a proud member of the HAPS Communications Committee.

Join HAPS– for the conversations!

The HAPS Discussion group (also known as HAPS-L and before that as “the listserv”) is the place where the most interesting conversations in A&P are happening.  This discussion group has hundreds of members, is very active, and has often features amazingly high level conversations among leaders in the field.  This group was started in 1998 as an email listserv, and some still call it that, but it is a modern discussion group with email preferences and a web archive.  The HAPS discussion group is open to all current HAPS members and is one of the most valuable perks of membership.

This week, one discussion revolved around the most accurate classification of bone types. In this discussion, Mark Nielsen (University of Utah Anatomy Professor and winner of the 2017 HAPS-Theime Excellence in Teaching Award) shared multiple illuminating contributions to the conversation. Check out the excerpt below…and then imagine having content like THIS delivered to your email box on a regular basis.

WOW, there is a lot of interesting discussion going on here, this is one of the nice things about the HAPS listserve. It is always great to share and discuss. While I agree with many of the sage comments about classification and “does it really matter because the bones do not care or know where they fit in the scheme of things”, it is still important to recognize that there is correct and incorrect within a classification scheme. Following is the bases of the classification scheme:

Long bone = what is the one characteristic shared by long bones that none of the other bone types have, one thing and one thing only, a medullary cavity, and yes all the phalanges, even the small distal phalanges have a medullary cavity, as does the clavicle. The following bones have a medullary cavity:

  • clavicle
  • humerus
  • radius
  • ulna
  • metacarpals
  • proximal phalanges of hand
  • middle phalanges of hand
  • distal phalanges of hand
  • femur
  • tibia
  • fibula
  • metatarsals
  • proximal phalanges of foot
  • middle phalanges of foot
  • distal phalanges of foot

I believe someone stated that long bones are characterized because they have a diaphysis with proximal and distal epiphyses. This is not true. Many long bones only have epiphyses at one end and not the other. This is the case for many of the phalanges. Again, the characteristic that defines a long bone is the presence of a medullary cavity. Besides, many bones have epiphyses – for example, short bones and irregular bones have epiphyses.

Short bones = are characterized by a core of spongy bone with an outer covering of compact bone. They typically have a length, width, and depth that are approximately of equal dimensions. The carpal and tarsal bones are placed in this category.

Flat bones = the true flat bones of the body all reside in the skull, but the ribs are also often considered to fall in this category because their bone structure is similar to the flat bones of the skull. These are bones that are characterized by external and internal tables (laminae) of compact bone sandwiching dense trabecular diploe, the diploic spaces of the trabecular bone being filled with hemopoetic red marrow in the living subject. This would include the parietal bones, frontal bone, squamous portion of the occipital bone and temporal bone, sutural or wormian bones that are ossification centers that never fused with the fore mentioned bones.

Most of the remaining bones did not fit into one of these three categories. Like the short bones and flat bones all the remaining bones had an outer covering of compact bone and an internal core of spongy bone and no medullary cavity, but they were not short and they were not flat. This led to the next category that became the catch all:

Irregular bones = a variety of bone shapes consisting of an outer covering of compact bone and a central core of spongy bone, with some bone surfaces that are so flat and thin that they lack spongey bone completely e.g., the scapula, ethmoid. Most of the other bones fall in this category – vertebrae, the bones of the facial skeleton and inferior cranial vault bones, hyoid, malleus, incus, stapes, and the scapula and os coxae.

The final category is the sesamoid bones = these are bones that form within tendons. In human anatomy they are similar in bony structure to short bones but have a unique classification as sesamoid bones because of their location within tendons. In some other vertebrates they are very long slender bones within tendons.

One other recognized category is a pneumatized bone. These are bones that contain air spaces within their cores and can overlap with other categories. For example, the frontal bone is both a flat bone and a pneumatized bone. The ethmoid bone, sphenoid bone, and petromastoid part of the temporal bone are both irregular bones and pneumatized bones.

So there is a logic to classification and it is not a random thing that we can bend to our whims. We now have the choice to ignore it or teach it correctly.

So if you’re a HAPS member, by all means, join this discussion group. And if you’re not a member, JOIN HAPS so you can join the discussion group. (Then adjust your email settings, because most HAPSters have experienced the infamous “blown up email box” that results from some of the more rigorous conversations! Thankfully, executive director Peter English wrote a blog post with instructions for doing just that.)

Gene Targeting into the 21st Century: Mouse Models of Human Disease from Cancer to Neuropsychiatric Disorders

This post describes an update seminar delivered by Dr. Mario R Capecchi at the 2017 HAPS Annual Conference in Salt Lake City.


Update seminar VI was a special one, given by Nobel laureate, Mario Capecchi. Having survived World War II in Italy, in part as a homeless orphan, Mario’s life story is a fascinating one.  He went on to become a graduate student at Harvard in the lab of the Nobel Prize winner and co-discoverer of the structure of DNA, James Watson.  In 2007, Mario Capecchi, now at the University of Utah, won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine jointly with Oliver Smithies and Martin Evans for their work on gene targeting. The ability to create knock-out mice is widely used to this day and has been a valuable means of mapping gene function.  Mario’s research talk at this year’s HAPS conference focussed on his current work which involves characterizing the different roles that the HOX gene family of transcription factors play during mouse development.  While most HOX (homeobox) gene members are involved in controlling embryonic body plan development in a cranio-caudal manner, Greer and Capecchi (2002) found that Hoxb8 plays a unique role in the mouse’s grooming behavior.

Most animals, including humans, perform some type of auto-grooming and in mice, a cephalocaudal pattern occurs, where the head is groomed first and the tail is groomed last.  Many regions of the brain including the brainstem appear to be involved.  Greer and Capecchi (2002) found that mice with a homozygous Hoxb8 complete loss-of-function knock-out, exhibited over-grooming to the point of hair loss and formation of deep lesions. The deep lesions suggest that the mice also may have reduced sensitivity to painful stimuli.  These mice spent twice as long grooming as wild type mice and also over-groomed their control littermates to the point of inducing hair loss.  Interestingly, in humans, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often manifests as excessive cleanliness and grooming (e.g. trichotillomania).  Greer and Capecchi mapped the murine expression of Hoxb8 and found that expression began at E7.5 in the primitive streak and yolk sac, spreading through the developing spinal ganglia, spinal cord, and then throughout grooming regions of the CNS in the adult mouse.  In many animals, the basal ganglia has been shown to be involved in modulating grooming behaviour (Aldridge et al., 1993; Berridge, 1989; Berridge and Fentress, 1987; Cromwell and Berridge, 1996; MacLean, 1985a, 1985b; Stein et al., 1992; Wise and Rapoport 1989;).  

In 2008, Capecchi’s lab (Chen et. al., 2008) found that the Hoxb8 gene was normally expressed in microglia cells, and that this expression appears to be required for regulating normal grooming time.  Chen et al. (2008) found that grooming dysfunction in Hoxb8 knockout mice, could be rescued with wild-type bone marrow transplantation. This makes sense as microglia descend from hemocytoblasts.  In addition, Chen et. al. also found that the Hoxb8 gene was normally expressed in the spinal cord where it seems to be responsible for appropriate responses to nociceptive and thermal stimuli.  In fact, Holstege et al. (2008) proposed that the nociceptive recipient interneurons in the dorsal spinal cord laminae I and II are deficient and disorganized in Hoxb8 knockout mice leading to reduced sensation.  Furthermore, Chen et. al. (2008), found that bone marrow transplantation did not rescue sensory defects, indicating that these 2 pathways of dysfunction were due to separate deficiencies (i.e. microglia cell and sensory neurons). Chen et al. (2008) found that deletion of Hoxb8 only in the hematopoietic cells resulted in mice with excessive grooming, but normal sensory responsiveness.

It is unclear how microglia cells are involved in grooming behaviour, however “immunological dysfunction is linked to many psychiatric disorders including OCD, major depression, bipolar disorder, autism, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer’s disease” Ashwood et al., 2006; da Rocha et al., 2008; Kronfol and Remick, 2000; Leonard and Myit, 2009; Strous and Shoenfeld, 2006 (Chen et al., 2008).   In this study, Hoxb8 mutant mice were found to have a deficiency of microglia (i.e. fewer microglia in the adult brain).  In terms of how microglia may control behaviour, it is speculated that microglia may be involved in modulating synaptic transmission as they surround synapses, perhaps playing a role in adjusting levels of neurotransmitters (e.g. serotonin).  In addition, microglia cells can secrete cytokines that affect both neuronal activity and longevity.  

At first glance it may seem strange that immune system cells, such as microglia, are involved in grooming.  However, upon further reflection, it does make sense that grooming behaviours may be controlled by the immune system, as the purpose of grooming in animals is to reduce the number of harmful pathogens.

Finally, it was noted that the Hoxb8 mutant mice did exhibit high levels of anxiety.   Anti-anxiety drugs were found to reduce the anxiety-induced grooming behaviour in Hoxb8 mutant mice and also improved their ability to perform the open maze test (which is a frequent measure of anxiety).   

As you can see, a lot of really interesting data was relayed to us in this update seminar and I’d really like to thank Mario Capecchi for such a thought-provoking talk!


Post from Dr. Zoë Soon, School of Health and Exercise Sciences, University of British Columbia Okanagan, BC, Canada


Aldridge, J.W., Berridge, K.C., Herman, M., and Zimmer, L. (1993). Neuronal coding of serial order: Syntax of grooming in the neostratum. Psychol. Sci. 4, 391-395.

Ashwood, P., Wills, S., and Vand Water, J. (2006). The immune response in autism: a new frontier for autism research. J. Leukoc. Biol. 80, 1-15.

Berridge, K.C. (1989). Substantia nigra 6-OHDA lesions mimic striatopallidal disruption of syntactic grooming chains: a neural systems analysis of sequence control. Psychobiol. 17, 377-385.

Berridge and Fentress (1987). Disruption of natural grooming chains after stritopallidal lesions. Psychobiol. 15, 336-342.

Chen, S.-K., Tvrdki, P., Peden, E., Cho, S., Wu, S., Spangrude, G., and Capecchi, M.R. (2010) Hematopoietic origin of pathological grooming in Hoxb8 mutant mice. Cell 141, 775-785.

Cromwell, H.C., and Berridge, K.C. (1996). Implementation of action sequences by a neostriatal site: a lesion mapping study of grooming syntax. J. Neurosci. 16, 3444-3458.

da Rocha, F.F., Correa, H., and Teixeira, S.L. (2008). Obsessive-compulsive disorder and immunology: a review. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 32, 1139-1146.

Greer, J.M. and Capecchi, M.R. (2002). Hoxb8 is required for normal grooming behavior in mice. Neuron 33, 23-34.

Holstege, J.C., de Graaf, W., Hossani,M., Cano, S.C., Jaarsma, D., van den Akker, E., and Deschamps, J. (2008). Loss of Hoxb8 alters spinal dorsal laminae and sensory responses in mice.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 6338-6343.

Kronfol, Z., and Remick, D.G. (200). Cytokines and the brain: implications for clinical psychiatry. Am. J. Psychiatry 157, 683-694.

Leonard, B.E., and Myint, A. (2009). The psychoneuroimmunology of depression. Hum. Psychopharmacol. 24, 165-175.

MacLean, P.D. (1985a). Brain evolution relating to family, play, and the separation call. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 42, 405-417.

MacLean, P.D. (1985b). Evolutionary psychiatry and the triune brain. Psychol. Med. 15, 219-221.

Stein, D.J., Shoulberg, N., Helton, K., and Hollander, E. (1992). The neuroethological approach to obsessive-compulsive disorder. Compr. Psychiatry 33, 274-281.

Strous, R.D., and Shoenfeld, Y. (2006). Schizophrenia, autoimmunity and immune system dysregulation: a comprehensive model updated and revisited.  J. Auoimmun. 27, 71-80.

Wise, S., and Rapoport, J. (1989). Obsessive-compulsive disorder: is it basal ganglia dysfunction? In Osbessive-Compulsive Disorders in Children and Adolsecents, J. Rapoport, Ed. (Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press), pp 327-344.

No More “Syllabus Day!”

Before last fall, when I would start to plan out my first day of A&P, I always greatly underestimated the time it would take to go over the syllabus, class expectations, and introductions. Typically, I would plan all those activities to fit into 15 minutes, leaving plenty of time left in the class period to start Chapter 1. However, we all know the reality of first day time management – if we are lucky, we get through the introductions, syllabus, and course expectations. In fact, students count on this reality, calling the first day “Syllabus Day,” meaning nothing really happens.

Last summer while attending my first HAPS conference in Atlanta I met some wonderful people, and heard about what others did in their courses. Specifically, I learned how Brian Reid and other lab TAs from Georgia State University had lab syllabus quizzes that students had to complete in order to unlock other lab quizzes. In a workshop, Wendy Riggs shared her experiences making lecture videos and the importance of showing your face in the video so students feel you are talking to them.

I took the ideas of Brian and Wendy and decided to combine them to make an online syllabus video with an accompanying syllabus quiz. In my video (see screen shot below) I have three windows which I record through a full screen capture.

Screen Shot of a Syllabus Video
Screen Shot of a Syllabus Video

One window is a recording of myself (my least favorite part); a second window shows the course online platform (in my school’s case Canvas) so I can demonstrate where to access homework assignments, or view grades; and the third window has the syllabus document, which I walk through explaining everything from my office hours and contact information, to the course objectives, and the course policies (on attendance, homework grading, etc.). Accompanying the video is a 5-point online quiz, and the questions are written so that students need to look through the entire syllabus to find the answers. The quiz is set up for unlimited attempts, with no time limit, but it is graded all or nothing – students either get all the questions correct or they get a “0.” The last encouragement I give students is extra credit. One week before classes start, Canvas becomes available to all students; I send out an email to my students providing instructions on how to log on to Canvas and access the course. In this email I outline the first couple of assignments, including the syllabus quiz, which are due the second day of class. If students complete the syllabus quiz prior to the first day of class and they answer all the questions correctly, they can earn double points.

After making a syllabus video and assigning a syllabus quiz for a couple of semesters I have found that students tend to be readier on the first day as they have “met” me through the video, there is less anxiety because they know the format of the course, and much of the troubleshooting related to access to the online course page or getting the right textbook, etc, has already been dealt with. Having this assignment sent out before the start of class also helps me identify which students are not checking their school emails on a regular basis or are unable to log on to Canvas. By going over the syllabus before the start of class, I now have more time on the first day to start content related activities and utilize as much time as possible covering material.

While making these videos has increased my anxiety (e.g. is that really what I sound like?), the benefits make it worthwhile.


Post from Shanna Nifoussi, Ph.D, Assistant Professor in the School of Applied Science in the Natural and Applied Science Department at Mount Ida College in Newton, Massachusetts.

Curriculum that Works:  Classroom Activities that Promote Conversations and Questions

Consider this post an invitation to submit classroom activities for possible publication in a special issue of the HAPS Educator!

My boss, Robin, and I were talking one day about our best classroom activities.  “Do you have anything that’s a guaranteed hit?” she asked.  “I have two or three,” I said. Robin replied with “That’s good!  I have one, or maybe two.”

Wow.  After several years of developing curriculum for the active learning classroom (pictured below) you would think that we would have more than that.  Nope.  Curriculum development is far from easy; it requires the right combination of students, topics, questions, graphics, and more.

The open learning classroom
An active learning classroom at the University of Minnesota.  Nine students sit at a round table, and there are 14 tables in the classroom.

The days I use the “Inside and Outside” activity with entry level students I know will be good.  And by good I mean students will be talking with each other using the language of anatomy and physiology and there will be many moments where you witness students thinking, doubting, questioning, and even going back and revising answers to previous questions.  There will be good questions generated by the students.  There will be learning!

I use the “Inside and Outside” activity as an introduction to the digestive system, but I have many colleagues in other entry-level classes using it to introduce the respiratory system, others use it to introduce the integumentary system, and a couple even use it on the first day of the semester. The activity involves one graphic and several guiding questions that help students develop a conceptual understanding of what is inside and outside the body and the anatomical barriers involved.  The following questions are included; and it’s important to note that the answers to these questions are quite obvious to us (experts) but are quite novel, and sometimes even a bit troubling, for entry level students.

  1. Is air that is inside the lungs considered inside or outside the body?
  2. Is a piece of gum that is inside the stomach inside or outside the body?
  3. Is a fetus developing inside the uterus inside or outside the body?
  4. Is a tattoo inside or outside the body?

Learning, and more specifically conceptual learning, is slow and non-linear.  Students frequently pause, think, ask questions, think some more, and slowly…slowly…figure…things…out.  To show this process, I videotaped a group of four freshmen completing the “Inside and Outside” activity.  (I especially like watching the body language of students while engaging in good active learning lessons: squirming, leaning in, leaning back, looking up in the air, etc…all evidence that learning is indeed taking place.)  It’s painfully slow to watch, and many old-school lecturer instructors would obviously ask “why don’t you just tell them the answer!”  Unfortunately, conceptual learning is not that easy; for students to understand a concept (e.g., how do you know if something is inside vs. outside the body), they must construct their own understandings, they must “figure it out for themselves,” and cannot simply be told what to know.

A key factor in the success or failure of curriculum is its fit with the students – it’s not a “one size fits all” thing.  What provokes and engages students in one classroom might be quite bland and flat in another.  For example, advanced anatomy and physiology students zip through the “Inside and Outside” activity and have few, if any, questions.  Entry level students, however, work slowly and have many questions, and also have more than a few “aha!” moments.

Over the next few years, our research team of Kyla Ross, Ron Gerrits, Kerry Hull and myself, hope to develop a library of curriculum materials for HAPS members.  The library will be an on-line collection of curriculum activities that enable HAPS members to pick and choose activities that best fit their students and course goals.  We’re starting that endeavor with a special edition of the HAPS Educator that is to be published this Fall.

For this special edition we’re asking all HAPS members the following question:

Do you have any curriculum that works?  Do you have a classroom activity that is a sure thing in terms of generating classroom conversation?  Generating those “aha!” moments?

If so, please consider submitting your activity for possible publication in a special edition of the HAPS Educator.

We’re starting this process with two activities that can serve as examples.  First is the “Inside and Outside” activity that targets entry level anatomy and physiology students, and the second, from Ron Gerrits, is on cardiovascular control and targets physiology students.  Both follow the format that is required for the submission process.

Links to the two sample activities, as well as more information for activity submission, can be found on the HAPS website.

Transforming, or “flipping,” your classrooms from traditional lecture to active learning is a huge endeavor, and you should not try to do it all at once.  But with help from colleagues in HAPS, and sharing good curriculum (curriculum that works!), the process can be a lot easier, student learning can be increased, and you are almost guaranteed to love the conversations and questions you’ll have with your students.


This week’s post is from Dr. Murray Jensen, Associate Professor of Biology Teaching and Learning at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis.

The President’s Medal

The President’s medal is an award that recognizes a HAPS member who has provided exemplary service to HAPS. The recipient of the award is chosen by the current HAPS President and  is announced at the Annual General Membership Meeting.  Terry Thompson explains below why she chose Carol Veil as the 2017 President’s Medal recipient.

Carol Veil (l) receives the President’s Medal from President Terry Thompson (r)

I had the pleasure of presenting this year’s medal to Carol Veil in Salt Lake City.  Because the choice is kept secret, I first shared a “hint” with the audience in the form of a special chocolate Oscar-like statue.  I think most everyone in the room got the hint, except Carol.  In true humility, as she was dutifully taking minutes from the Annual Membership meeting, Carol looked up and thought, “Gee, there must be someone else here that likes chocolate as much as I do”.

Carol served on the Steering Committee as chair of the Curriculum & Instruction Committee from 2005 to 2009.  During that time she coordinated 35 faculty from 18 different states to develop the HAPS Anatomy & Physiology Learning Outcomes, which continues to be one of our organization’s most valuable members resources.  The Learning Outcomes are used by faculty to develop and assess their courses, by publishers to organize textbooks, and by the HAPS Testing Committee to write questions for the HAPS Exam. The coordination and organization of this major project is even more amazing when we think back to the limited technology that was available at that time for collaboration only by email attachments and multiple versions of documents.

In her 19 years as a HAPS member, Carol has given individual and team workshops at 20 annual conferences and at 5 regional conferences, often presenting some of both at the same conference.  Many of us have gleaned new teaching tips and strategies from the various workshops presented in partnership with Javni Mody, such as the popular Awesome Analogies or Mnifty Mnemonics, as well as learned so much about the physiology of chocoholics from a connoisseur.  She also served on conference planning committees for the 2009 Baltimore Annual conference and two regional conferences. Carol also involved her students in the pilot study for the A&P 1 only version of the HAPS Exam.

Most recently, Carol was elected to the Board of Directors as Secretary for two terms since 2013, serving with four HAPS presidents.  As a result, she played a role in the initial development and the mid-term review of the HAPS 2014 – 2019 Strategic Plan that provides the great vision and process to lead HAPS successfully into the future.  Carol was chosen for this award based on her work in these many roles as she ends her term as HAPS secretary and retires from Anne Arundel Community College (AACC) near Annapolis, MD.  She has already committed to continuing her involvement with HAPS with initial plans for a team workshop in Columbus OH and agreeing to serve as Chair-in-Training under Don Kelly as the next co-chair of the Foundation Oversight committee for Grants and Scholarships.

It was my honor to present Carol with this well-deserved recognition and we all look forward to her continued HAPS contributions as a retired emerita member.

Teaching Tips and Learning Outcomes

Since 2003 HAPS members have been sharing teaching tips with each other through HAPS publications. Over the years these teaching tips were archived primarily in whole-publication pdf files of the HAPS Educator. While it was always exciting to see the tips each time a new edition of HAPS Educator was publish, what could you do if you remembered reading about a tip 3-5 (or maybe even 10) years ago? Go rummage through all the pdfs?

A related problem has to do with using the HAPS Learning Outcomes. These represent a vast amount of work and are an incredible resource for HAPS members as well as the broader community (most publishers and many programs have adopted the HAPS Learning Outcomes), but adopting them for your course can be daunting at first.

So we got together this Summer and solved both problems!

Super-HAPSter Kathy Burleson

First, HAPS member Kathy Burleson went through all the back issues of HAPS Educator and uncovered over 220 teaching tips reaching all the way back to 2003. She turned each teaching tip (known over the years as an “edu-snippet”) into a separate document and assigned each to a specific HAPS Learning Outcome. In some cases a tip was assigned to two or three Learning Outcomes.

Then we took all that information and made a website out of it. All the Learning Outcomes are listed in abbreviated form and ones that have associated teaching tips are colored green. At the same time all the teaching tips are listed for each major category of Learning Outcome are grouped where they can easily be browsed.

We added search features that search within each document, so a search for “artery” for example, will pull that term from within each teaching tip that uses it. This should prove to be very handy.

And finally there are short summaries of each teaching tip listed as comments that make it easy to focus on what you need.

Come check out the new site! Just click on the image above.