My Favorite Guided Inquiry Activity for the First Week of Class: Inside and Outside the Body

We’ve all seen this image, or something quite similar, in chapter 1 of any anatomy & physiology textbook identifying the various barriers, tubes, and cavities of the human body. Although the image is part of the usual collection of introductory topics covered within the first week, courses typically pay it only cursory attention. Over the past few years, I’ve taken this often underappreciated image and used guided inquiry to deepen students’ understanding of what is inside or outside the body.

Model 1. Cavities and Tubes in Humans

What is guided inquiry? Guided inquiry lessons involve two essential components: curricular materials and teaching methods. Curricular materials extend beyond the textbook and must support students in “figuring out” a concept, such as how to determine what is inside or outside the body. Guided inquiry teaching methods are complex and include organizing students into small, cooperative working groups and using questioning to facilitate instruction. Asking students questions guides conversations, promotes deeper thinking, and fosters more accurate understanding (Jensen, 2016.) From an outsider’s perspective, guided inquiry lessons in classrooms may appear chaotic and confusing. It may seem that the students are going down cognitive rabbit holes that are potentially fruitful, but not initially correct. In response, instructors who are new to guided inquiry may want to jump in and correct students as they discuss questions and ideas. However, with experience in these teaching practices, they learn when to step back, let students struggle a bit, and figure things out for themselves, rather than simply telling them the correct answer. Within these moments of struggle exist the true power of guided inquiry as students construct their learning rather than memorizing information provided by an instructor and/or textbook.

Several years ago, while I was lecturing in a junior/senior-level physiology class, my instruction included statements such as “The air in the lungs is outside the body,” and “The contents of your intestines are outside of your body.” Simple stuff, right? Well, no. In fact, several students came up to me after class and said, “We don’t understand this inside and outside stuff. How can the contents of the intestines be outside the body?”

To address these important student misconceptions, the next day I had the class work through a guided inquiry using the “Inside and Outside the Body Activity.” (See the links below for the lesson plan.) In this activity, students examined the inside and outside body model closely to see that the “skin” is not continuous, but rather has breaks or openings for the urinary system, digestive system, etc. While they inspected the model and discussed their ideas with their group members, I guided their inquiry by encouraging them to look very closely at the model and answered student questions with still more questions. As a result, several “a-ha” moments occurred as the students proclaimed, “Now we get it!” and “We should have learned this when we were freshmen!”

These “ah-ha” moments still fascinate me today as an instructor. Recently, I used this guided inquiry lesson in an entry-level physiology class which included quite a few engineering majors. One of the engineering students was so perplexed by this activity that he had to get out of his chair and walk around the room a couple times, repeating, “No way! This cannot be right.” After a bit of thinking and walking, he approached me and asked, “OK, with this definition in place, you can never be inside your house, correct?” What a creative thought!  (And no, I won’t tell you how I answered. I’ll let you engage in that bit of inquiry yourself!)

Ready to try out this inquiry in your classroom? Over the past 10 years, there have been several versions of the “Inside and Outside the Body” guided inquiry activity made available. The first was published in a special edition of the HAPS Educator while a second one was published in CourseSource, both great sources for classroom activities including guided inquiry curricular materials. Considerable background information for this activity can be found in both of those publications. While the current version is newer, it is not necessarily better. Instructors who have worked with guided inquiry for several years frequently have their favorite versions.

I typically use this guided inquiry lesson during the first day of class to facilitate learning inside and outside body concepts. But of course, it could easily be adapted to units on the integumentary, digestive, respiratory systems, and even immunology. Feel free to use, adapt, and share this activity as you wish. As always, if you have suggestions for improvements or would like more guided inquiry activities, please send me an email at msjensen@umn.edu

Note: The enclosed version of this activity is not endorsed by any professional organization. 

Reference

Jensen, M. (2016).  The HAPS Educator, Summer, 2016, 98-101.  Instructional Strategies for the Active Learning Classroom:  doi: 10.21692/haps.2016.021


Dr. Murray Jensen is a Professor of Biology Teaching and Learning at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis.

Teaching Tips Update

This post is provided by the HAPS Curriculum and Instruction Teaching Tips Review Team

Have you ever wanted to revamp your teaching activities? Needed new ideas to engage students with important curricular concepts or how to pair with formative assessments?! We have an answer for you! The Curriculum & Instruction Teaching Tips subcommittee would like to re-highlight and share our new Teaching Tips improved website and submission process!

Teaching Tips (formally EduSnippets) are available to all HAPS members and are descriptions of learning activities including instructor’s guides and formative assessments. As of January 2022, a new website has been launched that houses all past and current Teaching Tip submissions. This website also uses a new “searchable tool” located at the top of the webpage, which allows easy access to all submitted Teaching Tips by author name, concept, learning objectives, etc. (shown below).

If you search “muscle action” in the keyword search, a new teaching tip created by our very own subcommittee member, Amy Gyorkos, Ph.D., appears which highlights how to teach students to use reason and not recall for learning skeletal muscles! (shown below)

This March, we also published THREE other Teaching Tips with activities involving pelvic vasculature, the urinary system, and plasma membrane transport. Each submission is peer-reviewed by two members of the HAPS C&I Teaching Tips Subcommittee before publishing on the web page.

If you are looking to share one of your teaching activities/assessments, the Teaching Tips submission process has also been overhauled for a streamlined process. To find more information on this process, please visit the hapsweb.org teaching tips info page. There you will find “buttons” that allow you to download the Teaching Tip Instructions, and Template used for the submission process. Submission deadlines are January 15, March 15, May 15, July 15, September 15, and November 15. Please submit your Teaching Tip here.

Want to know more about the new submission process? Visit our workshop at the HAPS Annual Conference in Ft. Lauderdale on Sunday, May 29th at 11am EDT.

A&P Lab Accommodations Town Hall Series Wrap Up

The Accommodations subcommittee hosted a series of events at the beginning of the spring semester. The subcommittee members are truly inspired by how earnestly our audience members want to provide a classroom for all. We have gathered tremendous information by hearing your experiences, and together we will create a guidebook including suggestions for HAPS members on how to approach specific accommodations.  Keep in mind that all students typically perform better when accommodations are provided. It’s not an advantage for the student receiving accommodations. Accommodations enable an inclusive learning environment so everyone has a fair and equitable opportunity.

Pictured Left to right. Top Row: Jennifer Stokes, Abbey Breckling, Rachel Hopp 
Middle Row: Youlonda FitzGerald, Heather Armbruster, Barbara Heard 
Bottom Row: Sarah Greene, Jennifer Ellsworth, Jim Clark
Not Pictured: Molli Crenshaw, Margaret Weck, Liz Dement

These sessions were purposely designed to be at the beginning of the semester due to the fact that this is typically the time instructors are receiving accommodation(s) requests from students. The purpose of this series was to spark discussion, learn about specific accommodations, and gather information on current accommodation requests being fulfilled in A&P labs. We want to remind our HAPS members to work closely with their respective institution’s office of support services (or equivalent) as early as possible, and most often these centers want to work with you. 

In case you missed any of the 4 sessions, recordings of the live session or voiceover PowerPoints are posted to the HAPS website here. If you are interested in receiving ppt files, please email abreckling@hapsconnect.org.

January 19th – Incorporating ADA approved accommodations into A&P Labs by Jim Clark and Jennifer Ellsworth 

In this session, we highlighted ADA Guidelines and discussed how to include Universal Educational Design into the curriculum to create an inclusive learning environment for all students. We also included common accommodations i.e. extended time on exams, reduced distraction environments, and how to approach students who may need frequent breaks/absences. 

January 26thSupporting Students with Visual Impairments in A&P Labs, presented by Heather Armbruster and Barbara Heard 

In this session, we touched on many Universal Educational Design aspects when planning your lectures/labs i.e. fonts, accessible documents, alt text, etc. This session also described different levels of student visual capabilities and how to approach impactful learning for low vision, legal blindness, and total blindness. 

February 2nd – Creating an Inclusive Learning Environment for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students in A&P labs led by Sarah Greene 

In this session, we heard from two panelists: Dr. Alicia Wooten, Ph.D., Assistant Professor at Gallaudet University, and Holly Jackson, M.Ed., Sign Language Interpreter. They shared their experiences in the Deaf community as a student, professor, interpreter, and advocate. 

February 9th – Providing ADA Accommodations for Physical Limitations and Service/Support Animals in A&P Labs, presented by Youlonda FitzGerald and Jennifer Stokes 

In this session, we simulated an A&P lab set-up and used Universal Educational Design to ensure all activities and instruments were accessible to students who might need accommodations based on physical limitations or a service animal in the A&P lab. 

Thank you again, for your time and willingness to share. We look forward to hearing from you at the Annual HAPS conference where we will be having an interactive poster presentation on Thursday, 5/26, and an interactive workshop on Sunday, 5/29 at 8:30am where we will also share the first glimpse at our Accommodations Guidebook!

If you have any questions or concerns, please reach out to the following:

Accommodations Subcommittee chair: Abbey Breckling  abreckling@hapsconnect.org

C&I Committee Chair: Rachel Hopp rhopp@hapsconnect.org

Advanced Placement A&P to Launch in Fall 2024

The Advanced Placement (AP) program has been in operation for many years and offers high school students the ability to take courses for college credit.  The College Board, the organization that administers AP programs as well as the SAT standardized test, announced recently that anatomy & physiology (A&P) will be offered through the AP program starting in the Fall of 2024.

Here are three details HAPS members should know about the AP program and the AP A&P course they will offer:

  • Advanced Placement courses are taught by high school teachers who are offered extensive professional development opportunities, such as summer workshops, to learn the curriculum and instructional requirements for the different AP courses.  The driving force behind all AP courses is the final, 3-hour, exam; for the entire duration of the course, the teachers teach to this exam. Exams are scored on a scale of 1 to 5.  A score of 3 is considered passing and scores of 4 or 5 indicate mastery and superior understanding. 
  • Colleges and universities can accept or decline AP credits.  Some schools accept credits only if students score a 4 or 5 on the exams. Other schools do not accept AP credits unless the student takes and passes the next level of course content at their institution.  If the credits are accepted, then the student can opt out of that college class. 
  • The new AP A&P course might fulfill one or both semesters of a two-semester college sequence. One of many possibilities is that if a student scores a 5 on the AP exam, they will get credit for both semesters, a score of 4 will earn credit for one of the two semesters, and a 3 means a student will have to take both semesters of A&P.  In almost all cases, credit decisions are made by college administrators. 

My hope is that HAPS members can play a role in the development of this new program.  Reports from my network of high school teachers is that the now mature AP Biology program had difficult early years because the exam focused on memorization over conceptual learning.  However, those same teachers now report that the AP Biology is indeed a rigorous course and provides students with a high-quality learning experience. 

A few possible roles for HAPS in the new AP A&P course include:

  • helping instructors with day-to-day teaching and learning issues
  • identifying course learning goals and objectives
  • assisting with the development of the final exam
  • helping colleges navigate the politics of accepting or rejecting AP A&P credits

Many experienced A&P instructors and administrators will view this new AP A&P program with skepticism, “Can a college-level anatomy and physiology course be taught in a high school?”  That is indeed a valid question.  My 15 years of experience working in a college/high school partnership strongly suggests yes (Jensen, Mattheis, and Loyle, 2013).  Let’s give the teachers and students the best possible opportunities for success.  The HAPS organization can indeed be a significant participant in the launch of this new A&P program.

Jensen, M., Mattheis, A., & Loyle, A. (2013). Offering an Anatomy and Physiology Course Through a High School-University Partnership: The Minnesota Model. Advances in Physiology Education, 37: 157-164


Dr. Murray Jensen is a Professor of Biology Teaching and Learning at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis.

HAPS Lab Survey 2022

In our quieter moments, I’m sure we can all recall long-planned projects and events that should have happened in the spring of 2020. For HAPS, one such project was the third offering of the Lab Survey. Results from the first and second surveys came out in 2014 and 2017, and we were looking forward to documenting how our laboratory learning outcomes and activities have developed and changed over the years. In our monumental and collective efforts to adjust ourselves and our courses to remote instruction, learn new software, problem-solve, and keep our families and friends safe, the lab survey was pushed into the ‘Important but Not Urgent’ category. 

The virtual HAPS Annual Conference in 2021 gave us, as a subcommittee of C&I, a chance to refocus and plan for launching the third offering of the lab survey. Our dedicated subcommittee members met twice monthly from June through October to revise and refine the survey. Subcommittee members volunteered for one of the three content areas (i.e., demographics, learning outcomes and activities, and teaching during the pandemic). Within each content area, members represented a diverse range of teaching experiences, institutions, geographic areas, teaching challenges, and individual perspectives. After several rounds of reviewing, revising, and test runs with naive reviewers, we were able to take the next step of obtaining IRB approval and planning the timeline for the survey launch.

Earlier this month, you should have received an email from HAPS inviting you to participate in the survey. We appreciate you and your willingness to add your anonymous data and perspectives on your successes and challenges in teaching human A&P before our classrooms, and most of our lives, were turned upside down by the coronavirus, as well as how you met new challenges while teaching during the pandemic. A longitudinal analysis of the survey data, with comparisons to the past surveys and publication in the HAPS Educator, will help all of us create the post-pandemic A&P laboratory.

ADInstruments has generously offered to sponsor gift cards in support of the survey, and participants are encouraged to enter into a drawing for the sponsored gift cards. One winner will receive a $100 gift card and four others will each win $50 gift cards.

If you have any questions about the survey, please contact Carol Britson (cbritson@hapsconnect.org) or Rachel Hopp (rhopp@hapsconnect.org ), and once again, our humblest thank you.

C&I Lab Survey Subcommittee

Rachel Hopp (C&I Chair), Carol Britson (subcommittee chair), Ginger York, Janay Dennis, James Clark, Virginia Baker, Heather Arbruster, Chris Kule, Chinenye Anako, Julia Schmitz, Jeff Huffman, Shannon Oldenburg, Marnie Chapman, Cynthia Schmaeman, Roberta Anelli

A&P Lab Accommodations Town Hall Series Preview

The beginning of each semester is an exciting time for both HAPS members and our students, but that excitement may dwindle as our inboxes and to-do lists begin filling with administrative tasks. One common beginning of the term task is fielding accommodation requests. These requests may be routine or repeated, but they may also be confusing, surprising, or even unfeasible if you cannot provide the accommodations in your space(s).

The Accommodations Subcommittee of the HAPS Curriculum and Instruction Committee has created a 4-week town hall series to kick off the spring term. The goals of this series are to spark discussion, learn tips and tricks for specific accommodations, and gather information on current accommodation requests being fulfilled in A&P labs. In each town hall session, subcommittee members will be interacting with the audience to gather data with the intention of creating a useful guide to lab accommodations for all HAPS members. Interested in attending? You can register now! Note: the Zoom link will be the same for all of the sessions, so once you are registered once you are all set!

Town hall sessions will be held on Wednesdays from 3-4 PM EST (2 PM Central, 1 PM Mountain, Noon Pacific) beginning on January 19. An overview of the topics being covered each week is below.  

January 19th – Incorporating ADA-approved accommodations into A&P Labs.

A&P instructors may be asked to provide a variety of accommodations to students in A&P laboratories and may not know how best to meet those requests. Discussions will focus on how to incorporate Universal Educational Design in teaching A&P labs, testing accommodations for laboratory examinations, and how to consider accommodation requests students may need based on academic standards and rigors for your course(s).

January 26thSupporting Students with Visual Impairments in A&P Labs

The discussion will focus on accommodations and other considerations for students with visual impairments in laboratory settings of A&P courses.

February 2nd – Creating an Inclusive Learning Environment for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students in A&P labs

This session will include a panel discussion with 2-3 Deaf and Hard of Hearing students and/or professionals who will share their own experiences related to teaching and learning in the A&P lab. 

February 9th – Providing ADA Accommodations for Physical Limitations and Service/Support Animals in A&P Labs

This session will foster discussion focused on accommodations for students with physical limitations in A&P laboratories. Discussions will focus on physical limitations for testing, laboratory safety for students, and support/service animals.

The same Zoom link will be used for all of the sessions, so once you are registered you are all set. You will receive an email with the Zoom link on the day of each session.

If you have any questions or concerns, please reach out to:

Accommodations Subcommittee chair: Abbey Breckling abreckling@hapsconnect.org

C&I Committee Chair: Rachel Hopp rhopp@hapsconnect.org

CAPER is back!

The Community College Anatomy and Physiology Educational Research Program (CAPER) is back in a new, longer format (IUSE 2111119). CAPER is a multi-layered program focused on evidence-based instructional practices (EBIPs) and educational research with Community College (CC) Anatomy and Physiology (A&P) instructors. At the foundational level, CC instructors will design classroom research projects to evaluate the impacts of EBIPs on student success and classroom engagement. The CC instructors will also administer questionnaires to their A&P students regarding their attitudes towards EBIPs, their sense of confidence in their academic abilities, and their level of anxiety in the classroom. This data will provide much-needed insight into the efficacy of EBIPs in CC A&P classrooms. Furthermore, the CAPER research team will administer interviews and questionnaires to CC instructors throughout the project to gain insight into changes in instructors’ beliefs and perspectives on teaching. An additional intention of CAPER is to create a long-term community of practice among CC A&P instructors around the US and to study the impacts of communities of practice on the instructors.

This five-year program will include four cohorts of ten to twelve CC A&P instructors. Each cohort will attend a semester-long pedagogy course followed by a semester-long research course. During this year, the A&P instructors develop their individual research plans. The second year is devoted to A&P instructors’ individual data collection, analysis, and dissemination of findings. After submitting their manuscripts to a peer review journal,select members of each cohort are invited to become mentors for the incoming cohort, thus continuing their involvement in the CAPER community of practice.

Outputs of this project will include not only traditional dissemination activities such as conference presentations and peer-reviewed manuscripts, but also a network of opinion leaders and mentors from CAPER project alumni. This network will be positioned to champion pedagogical transformation within their institutions and professional networks. CAPER will actively connect CC instructors with professional communities of practice to support ongoing professional development.

Research Team Bios

Murray Jensen is a faculty member in the College of Biological Sciences, at the University of Minnesota, where he teaches human physiology. Jensen has taught high school, community college, technical college, and university students, and now oversees 30 high school teachers in a dual enrollment physiology program.   Within the CAPER program Jensen is co-teaching the HAPS I course Teaching Practices for Anatomy and Physiology, and oversees all accounting matters for the project. Jensen’s areas of expertise include cooperative group learning, cooperative quizzes, POGIL, guided inquiry, and classroom management.

Audrey Rose Hyson is a post-doctoral fellow for the CAPER program located at the University of Minnesota. Rose has taught English as a second language content courses to middle school, high school, and university students and has worked as a teacher trainer for English teachers in China. Her recent dissertation work focuses on how young people develop their gender, sexual, and racial identities in educational contexts. Within the CAPER program, Rose is a qualitative researcher. Her areas of expertise include identities and education, professional development and cognitive change, English as a second language, equity, diversity, and inclusion, education research design and qualitative data analysis.

Ron Gerrits is a faculty member at Milwaukee School of Engineering where he teaches mainly graduate courses in physiology, pathophysiology and pharmacology. Ron’s role in CAPER is to coordinate the Educational Research course, instruct part of the Teaching Practices course, and contribute to overall coordination, planning and the support of instructor projects. His favorite EBIP is guided inquiry, which he uses extensively in his courses.

Megan Deutschman is a PhD candidate in the Department of Organizational Leadership, Policy & Development at the University of Minnesota. Megan’s research focuses on the whiteness of the teaching force and the ways that white educators uphold, and potentially confront, racism and white supremacy in their classrooms. Prior to her PhD program, Megan was a K-8 classroom teacher both locally and internationally. Within the CAPER program, Megan works as a qualitative researcher.

Melaney Birdsong Farr is a faculty member at Salt Lake Community college where she teaches Human Anatomy, Human Physiology, and runs the college cadaver program. Melaney was a member of the first cohort of CAPER participants, and she now serves as teaching mentor to this cohort of CAPER participants. She has experience with electronic student response systems, case studies, and Think-Pair-Share in the classroom. 

Suzanne Hood is a faculty member in the Psychology department at Bishop’s University in Sherbrooke, Canada. Her role in RE-CAPER is to provide research support to instructors as they design and execute their classroom projects. She is also involved in collecting data from Anatomy and Physiology students about their perceptions of EBIP use in the classroom.

Kerry Hull is a faculty member in the Biology department at Bishop’s University in Sherbrooke, Canada, where she teaches Physiology.  She was the previous Editor in Chief of the HAPS Educator, the peer-reviewed journal of the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society, and thus serves as the writing mentor for RE-CAPER participants. She uses peer instruction, case studies, concept mapping, and guided inquiry in her classroom.

Chasity O’Malley is a faculty member at the Kiran C. Patel College of Allopathic Medicine at Nova Southeastern University in Fort Lauderdale, Florida where she teaches physiology to various health professions. She has taught at the community college level, four year private and public universities, and at the graduate level, giving her a wide range of experience. She is a graduate of the original CAPER project. Within the current CAPER project, Chasity oversees the mentors and is heavily involved in recruitment of the participants. She also is co-teaching the HAPS I course Teaching Practices for Anatomy and Physiology and is serving as a mentor for the first cohort. Her favorite EBIPs are case studies and problem based learning. She also has used clicker based modalities a lot throughout her teaching. 

Kathy Bell is a faculty member at Salt Lake Community College where she teaches Physiology and Microbiology. She was a member of the second cohort of CAPER participants and is now helping this new cohort as a teaching mentor. She enjoys using cooperative quizzes, case studies, think-pair-share, and guided inquiry in her classes.

Final note: The new NSF grant’s title is Refinement and Expansion of the Community College Anatomy and Physiology Research – or RECAPER.  The original grant’s title was Community College Anatomy and Physiology Research Project – or CAPER (NSF #1829157).  We are calling the new grant “CAPER,” or “the new CAPER,” but technically it should be called RE-CAPER.

For more information about the CAPER project, contact any of the four members of the CAPER leadership team.
Ron Gerrits – gerrits@msoe.edu
Kerry Hull – khull@ubishops.ca
Murray Jensen – msjensen@umn.edu
Chasity O’Malley – chasityomalley@gmail.com

HAPS 2021 Conference Day 4

It’s the last day of the 2021 conference and the canine HAPSters made a final appearance. The morning began with a General Membership Meeting that included a huge THANK YOU to everyone who came together to support the HAPS Conference. 

During the General Membership meeting, the locations of upcoming September and November Regional meetings were announced. The 2022 Annual Conference will be held in Ft. Lauderdale, FL. HAPS announced new partnerships with ADInstruments and Cengage. Chastity O’Malley announced the Conference Award Winners: Amanda Haage, Sandra Hutchinson, Robin Wright, and Larry Young. Congratulations! Kyla Ross was introduced as the upcoming HAPS President.

After a morning workshop session, attendees visited Affinity Groups. Groups discussed topics such as inclusivity in anatomy and respect for anatomical donors. We then heard from our final Update Speaker, Albert Chi, who presented “Necessity as the Mother of Invention: Innovation and Health Challenges from COVID-19 to Bionic Arms”. There were a few technical issues at the beginning, but again with a group of awesome HAPSters coming together, we were able to troubleshoot and successfully livestream the talk. The presentation was followed by a final poster session, workshop session, and chance to meet with exhibitors. Krista Rompolski gave a popular and informative presentation about weight stigma.

The conference ended with a Social event in the Main Hall. HAPSters formed chat huddles and said their goodbyes. It was generally agreed upon that the 2022 conference would be a great reunion.

HAPS 2021 Conference Day 3

Day 3 of the HAPS 2021 Conference has come to an end. Wendy started the Main Hall Welcome by acknowledging some canine attendees. Congrats to Dexter for getting his Dogtorate for participating and to Oliver who is teaching his rubber chicken about all he learned!

The day’s events began with Synapse, a popular favorite amongst HAPSters. Burhan Gharaibeh, Marisol Lopez, Meaghan MacNutt, Jill Kirby, Heather Billings, Juno Farnsworth, and Kebret Kebde all presented fantastic talks within their time limit! Great job presenters! Following a workshop session, HAPS held a fun lunchtime event: Meet Your Regional Director. Check out this group of Central Region HAPSters!

In the afternoon we heard from our 5th Update Speaker: Melissa Caroll who discussed “Representation and Anatomical Diversity”. Caroll is the founder of Black in Anatomy https://t.co/fgj4I1lYvk?amp=1 

Today HAPSters visited three more workshop sessions and our third poster session. The evening ended with Exhibitor focus groups. We were reminded to meet with exhibitors and ask for letters to the Word Scramble! Don’t forget! The winner of the Word Scramble contest will receive free registration to the 2022 conference.

HAPS 2021 Conference Day 2

It is Day 2 of HAPS 2021 and our fluffy attendees were at it again. They took center stage in our morning welcome as Wendy shared some pics. We made it through two more Update Speakers, Committee meetings, some Workshops, encounters with Exhibitors, and a Poster Session today. 

Our update speakers provided fascinating new insights. Chris Basler taught us about immunology by discussing interactions between RNA viruses and their hosts using Ebola as a model. We learned how bats’ unique physiology allows them to act as reservoir hosts for many viruses that are deadly to humans. We had a couple of technical issues getting Nikki Jernigan up and running, but with 200+ HAPSters pitching in we managed to troubleshoot and learn about the effects of hypoxia on blood vessels. Hypoxia leads to opposing changes in vascular reactivity. Pulmonary arteries constrict while systemic arteries dilate. 

HAPSters had a plethora of interesting workshops to choose from. For example, we learned about higher order test questions from Gregory Crowther in “From Isolated Data-Analysis Tasks to General Skills: Bridging the Gap with Question Templates”. Amy Toulson, in “Gender, Sex and Sexuality Inclusion in Anatomy & Physiology Education”, discussed making courses more inclusive of various identities. They brought up important points about opening up to your students and acknowledging mistakes. 

Reminder: Check out the items available at the silent auction. Bidding ends tomorrow at 6pm EDT!